Medical Research Archives - RESEARCH AUSTRALIA (2023)

Treasurer Jim Chalmers has used his first Budget to implement some of the new Government’s election promises and make cuts to the former Government’s programs. This is a ‘mini budget’, which sets the scene for Labor’s first full Budget in April or May next year.

As such, there were no significant changes to funding for the ARC or the NHMRC research funding programs in the next two years, with modest increases across a range of funding programs in the following two years . It seems that any major increases in funding health and medical research will have to wait until the Budget situation improves.

The rising cost of living has continued to be a key political issue. In the March Budget, the CPI was forecast to be 3.0% for 2022-23 and 2.75% in 2023-24. In tonight’s Budget inflation for this year is expected to be 7.75% for 2022-323 and 3.5% in the next financial year. Rising inflation also affects health and medical research, making the cost of undertaking research higher. As noted above, the Government has once again failed to address this issue, with increases in funding for the NHMRC and ARC announced in the March Budget and maintained tonight failing to even keep pace with inflation.

Revamping Primary Care

The Treasurer has announced a $2.9 billion package to drive an innovative revamp of Australia’s primary health care system including $100 million to co-develop and pilot innovative models with states and territories to improve care pathways and inform program roll out. The new models of care will make it easier for Australians to see a healthcare professional when they have an urgent, but not life- threatening, need for care.

Comprehensive Cancer Centres

In a win for research-active healthcare, the Government has announced tonight $375.0 million over 6 years from 2022–23 to contribute to the establishment of the Queensland Cancer Centre in Brisbane. The centre will be owned and operated by the Queensland Government and will be located within the Herston Health Precinct at the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital.

There is also $77.0 million over 5 years from 2022–23 to contribute to the establishment of the Bragg Comprehensive Cancer Centre in Adelaide. The centre is an extension of the Australian Bragg Centre for Proton Therapy and Research at the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute.

National Centre for Disease Control
The Government is fulfilling its election promise to create a National Centre for Disease Control, with $3.2 million allocated over the forward estimates in preparatory work.

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National Health Sustainability and Climate Unit
In a sign of changing health priorities, a $3.4 million investment in the Budget will establish a National Health Sustainability and Climate Unit and develop Australia’s first National Health and Climate Strategy.

National Reconstruction Fund
The National Reconstruction Fund is a $15 billion election promise which includes $1.5 billion for medical products over seven years. In tonight’s budget the Government has confirmed this Fund is central to its plan to invest in a stronger economy, delivering better jobs

Other announcements that affect health and medical research and innovation include:

    • $39.0 million over 4 years from 2022–23 to increase the number and consistency of conditions screened through the newborn bloodspot screening
    • The new investment of $3 billion to deliver better aged care includes $23.1m for research and consultation for reforms to in-home aged care.

There are big spending announcements in areas as diverse as Defence and infrastructure. While not on the same scale, there is some good news for STEM, including:

    • $13.5 million over 4 years from 2022–23 to strengthen coordinated policy capability
      to identify, assess and support Australian development of critical and emerging
      technologies, an issue Research Australia has been tracking for some years now.
    • $10.3 million over 6 years from 2022–23 for Australia to host the International Science
      Council’s Regional Presence for Asia and the Pacific and to deepen Australia’s science
      engagement in the region.
    • $5.8 million over 5 years from 2022–23 to support women in science, technology,
      engineering and maths (STEM) through the Women in STEM and Entrepreneurship
      program and to undertake an independent review of existing STEM programs.
    • $4.8 million over 4 years from 2022–23 to develop Australian quantum technology
      through sponsoring up to 20 PhD research scholarships and encouraging collaboration
      on quantum research across Australian universities. This cost will be partially met from
      within the existing funding for the Department of Defence’s Next Generation
      Technologies Fund.

Please read on for our summary of what this Budget means for health and medical research and innovation.

In Research Australia’s Pre- Budget Submission and our Pre-Election Statement we continued to call for increases in funding for the NHMRC’s Medical Research Endowment Account. This Budget sees the Government’s funding to the MREA continue to decline in real terms. This is of genuine concern to the health and medical research community; it jeopardises our long term research capability and increases the precariousness of research careers, especially for early and mid career researchers.

Addressing these and other issues are at the centre of Research Australia’s advocacy for a truly national health and medical research and innovation strategy, We are working with Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments to make this vision a reality.

Medical Research Future Fund

The amount of funding available from the MRFF is predicted by the Budget to be $650 million per annum over the next four years. This is unchanged from the March Budget

The funding available from the MRFF each year is dependent on the investment return on its capital. Investment returns for the MRFF were adversely affected by the COVID driven economic downturn. The previous Government has committed the MRFF to providing funding of $650 million of the next few years, regardless of the actual investment returns on the MRFF’s capital. The Albanese Government has honoured this commitment for 2022/23, requiring it to provide an additional $62 million from consolidated revenue to meet this target. (Only $598 million has been released by the Future Fund Guardians to fund MRFF commitments this year.)

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NHMRC

Funding for the NHMRC’s MREA remains unchanged from the March Budget for 2022-23 and 2023-24, but is higher in the last two years of the forward estimates. Funding for the NHMRC’s programs is continuing to grow very slightly. The increase in this financial year is 1.7%, and around 1.5% in the following year before over the forward estimates. This is lower than the forecast CPI of 7.75% for 2022-23 and CPI of 3.5% in 2023-24. It also comes on top of CPI of 4.25% in 2021-22. In effect, NHMRC funding continues to decline in real terms in the next couple of years, as it has done for many years now.

$m.21-2222-2323-2424-2525-26
Funding to MREA

2022 Budget (OCT)

875.751877.952905.160922.365938.095
Funding to MREA

2022 Budget (MAR)

863.266877.952891.094905.355918.985
Funding to MREA

2021 Budget

863.266875.362887.588899.124N/A

Australian Centre for Disease Control

Fulfilling an election promise, the Government will provide $3.2 million in 2022–23 to undertake the initial design for the establishment of an Australian Centre for Disease Control. The design work will incorporate stakeholder consultations to ensure the new Centre will support improved pandemic preparedness and response, as well as the prevention of chronic disease. There is no detail about where the Centre will be located or potential partners.

Comprehensive Cancer Centres

The Government will provide $452.0 million over 6 years from 2022–23 to support the establishment of world class cancer centres in Brisbane and Adelaide. The centres will provide multi-disciplinary cancer care, research and clinical trials for all types of cancers.

Centre of Excellence in Disability Health

The Government will provide $15.9 million over 4 years from 2022–23 (and $6.6 million per year ongoing) to establish and support a National Centre of Excellence in Intellectual Disability Health (the National Centre of Excellence). Partial funding has already been provided for, with only some of this funding a new commitment.

The National Centre of Excellence will deliver a central hub of expertise, resources and research on the health care of people with intellectual disability and provide leadership in meeting the needs of people with intellectual disability.

Nearly half of all Australian health and medical research is undertaken in the higher education sector, and the Department of Education makes a significant contribution to the funding of this research through several programs, as outlined below.

ARC Programs

The Australian Research Council’s Funding Programs are critical to Australian publicly funded research, including to the life sciences and medical technologies.

Discovery Program

Over the forward estimates in this Budget, funding is slightly higher than the March Budget from 2023-24. The funding to the ARC for the Discovery Program increases by 0.8% compared to 2021/22, and by an average of 8% per annum over the next two years and 4% in 2025-26. This means that for the first time in many years the Discovery Program is forecast to increase slightly in real terms (i.e. at a rate higher than inflation).

$m.21-2222-2323-2424-2525-26
2022 Budget (OCT)506.735511.074551.867596.388622.986
2022 Budget (MAR)489.188511.074535.915562.406585.206
2021 Budget489.188494.922501.162509.432
2020 Budget487.016487.860490.610
2019 Budget525.537538.350N/A

Linkage

The ARC Linkage Program had been singled out by the previous Government as an important component of Australia’s innovation system and delivering the Industry Fellows component of the University Research Commercialisation Scheme. Accordingly there is a boost to the Linkage Program’s funding in this Budget of around $11 million per annum compared to what was allocated last year. This is not enough to enable the Linkage program to fund 800 new Industry Fellowships over 10 years announced in February and keep up with inflation.

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Linkage Program

$m.21-2222-2323-2424-2525-26
2022 Budget (OCT)292.543319.503345.731374.289400.792
2022 Budget (MAR)325.454340.820357.704375.595390.950
2021 Budget325.454329.948334.109339.622
2020 Budget323.871325.240327.074N/A
2019 Budget295.246301.741N/AN/A

Research Support

In addition to providing funding for the ARC research programs, the Department of Education provides funding to universities to help cover the indirect costs of research.

In the 2020 Budget, the Government used the Research Support Program to provide a vital injection of $1 billion into higher education research in the current financial year. No further injection was provided in last year’s Budget and funding in the March Budget for 2022-23 was actually lower than was forecast in the 2019 Budget. The October Budget provides increases of around 5% per annum in the Research Support Program from 2023-24.

$m.20-2121-2222-2323-2424-2525-26
2022 Budget (OCT)930.659951.1881004.3141058.7791089.934
2022 Budget (MAR)930.659951.188978.6741,002.6681,028.230
2021 Budget1918.298930.659942.775958.326974.143
2020 Budget1918.298926.490929.270938.107N/A
2019 Budget920.573941.748962.455N/AN/A
2018 Budget1018.8791042.302N/AN/AN/A

Funding for the indirect costs of research funded by the MRFF is provided from the Research Support Program. With the MRFF providing hundreds of millions of dollars in funding to universities, a substantial increase in the Research Support Program is needed just to maintain the levels of research support funding for research projects at their current already inadequate level. The issue of indirect research costs remains unresolved for the whole health and medical research sector and indeed publicly funded research more broadly. Research Australia continues to call for a whole of government approach to the issue of funding indirect research costs.

Research Training

The Research Training Program (RTP) provides funding to universities to support higher degree by research students (mostly PhDs). Funding for the RTP also declined in absolute terms between the 2019 and 2020 Budgets, and has only partly recovered in the 2022 Budget. The October Budget provides increases of around $50 million per year from 2023-24.

$m.20-2121-2222-2323-2424-2525-26
2022 Budget (OCT)1069.1811092.7661153.8001216.3721251.497
2022 Budget

(MAR)

1069.1821092.7661124.3441151.9091181.153
2021 Budget1054.9811069.1821083.1601100.9671119.137
2020 Budget1054.9811064.3921067.5851077.738N/A
2019 Budget1057.5951081.9211105.710N/AN/A

Australia’s Economic Accelerator

The Australia’s Economic Accelerator was a new program announced in the March Budget which was not implemented before the election. The Albanese Government has given a commitment to fund it. This is a $1.6 billion program over 10 years, administered by the Department of Education to overcome the valley of death that currently exists between the point at which public research funding ceases (typically publication) and the point at which commercial investors are prepared to get involved. The funding in the October Budget indicates less finding this year, accounting for delays in starting the program, with slightly higher funding over the forward estimates in subsequent years.

$m.22-2323-2424-2525-26
2022 Budget (OCT)10.17299.444162.395159.95
2022 Budget (MAR)49.16099.444149.498154.601

National Collaborative Research Infrastructure (NCRIS) Program

The NCRIS Program funds vital national research infrastructure needed to support Australian research. The 2021 National Research Infrastructure Roadmap informs the 2022 Research Infrastructure Investment Plan. Areas of interest to HMR that have been nominated for the New NCRIS roadmap include synthetic biology, digital research infrastructure, collections (biobanks) and facilities to scale up materials for clinical trials.

This Budget maintains the forecast $100 million boost to NCRIS from 2023-24 and slightly more funding each following year than was forecast in March. The 2022 Research Infrastructure Investment Plan should provide more detail about how this funding will be allocated once it is completed, hopefully later this year.

$m.21-2222-2323-2424-2525-26
2022 Budget (OCT)273.567286.043400.028499.848458.338
2022 Budget (MAR)273.567286.043396.826496.739454.441
2021 Budget273.565283.922391.092491.265

Start Up Year

Fulfilling an election promise, the Government will provide $15.4 million over 4 years from 2022–23 (and $2.8 million per year ongoing) to establish the Startup Year program to deliver income contingent Higher Education Loan Program loans to up to 2,000 recent graduates, postgraduate and final year undergraduate students per year. The Startup Year will support students’ participation in a one-year, business-focused accelerator program at an Australian higher education provider, which will encourage innovation and support Australia’s startup community.

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National Reconstruction Fund

Fulfilling another election promise, the Government will invest $15.0 billion over 7 years from 2023–24 to establish the National Reconstruction Fund (NRF) to provide targeted co-investments in 7 priority areas: resources; agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors; transport; medical science; renewables and low emission technologies; defence capability; and enabling capabilities.

The NRF is expected to generate revenue from investments, with policy and legislation design to follow public consultation.

$50 million over two years from 2022–23 has been allocated to the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, and the Department of Finance to establish the NRF.

Supporting Australian Science

The Government will provide $47.2 million over 6 years from 2022–23 to support the development of talent and leadership in Australian science and technology. Funding includes:

    • $13.5 million over 4 years from 2022–23 to strengthen coordinated policy capability to identify, assess and support Australian development of critical and emerging technologies
    • $10.3 million over 6 years from 2022–23 for Australia to host the International Science Council’s Regional Presence for Asia and the Pacific and to deepen Australia’s science engagement in the region
    • $10.0 million over 3 years from 2022–23 to continue delivery of Questacon outreach programs to engage young Australians and science teachers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, including through touring exhibitions for regional, rural and remote communities
    • $5.8 million over 5 years from 2022–23 to support women in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) through the Women in STEM and Entrepreneurship program and to undertake an independent review of existing STEM programs
    • $4.8 million over 4 years from 2022–23 to develop Australian quantum technology through sponsoring up to 20 PhD research scholarships and encouraging collaboration on quantum research across Australian universities. This cost will be partially met from within the existing funding for the Department of Defence’s Next Generation Technologies Fund
    • $2.9 million in 2022–23 to improve the Prime Minister’s National Science and Technology Council’s provision of science and technology advice and continue support of the Prime Minister’s Prizes for Science event.

CRC Program

The Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) Program is important to health and medical research and innovation, with many of the CRCs funded over the 30 year life of the program being health related. Current CRCs include the Digital Health CRC and the Autism CRC.

The smaller CRC projects program is also relevant, with recently funded projects including the creation of better brain electrodes and development of a bionic medical device that delivers high-fidelity visual-spatial perception for blind people. Funding for the CRC Program is scheduled to increase slightly faster than forecast in the 2021 and March 2022 Budget papers.

$m.20-2121-2222-2323-2424-2525-26
2022 Budget (OCT)187.343199.374199.962205.054201.579
2022 Budget (MAR)189.395199.374193.117197.070193.540
2021 Budget222.777189.980197.815191.042193.807N/A

Modern Manufacturing Initiative

The Modern Manufacturing Initiative was a major announcement in the 2020 Budget and part of the previous Government’s response to COVID-19. The program is being curtailed, with the Government reversing uncommitted funding in the Modern Manufacturing Initiative and not proceeding with a third round of the Manufacturing Modernisation Fund. The saving is $303.7 million over three years.

CSIRO

The CSIRO has Flagship Programs relevant to heath and medical research and is a key collaborator and partner in research. While it generates much of its own revenue it is also funded by the Government. The Government contribution to the CSIRO outlined in the Budget rises in the next two financial years before dropping back again.

$m.21-2222-2323-2424-2525-26
2022 Budget (OCT)949.037991.1341.005.563919.405931.573
2022 Budget (MAR)949.037991.289985.625899.352904.477

Research Australia will continue to provide analysis and commentary in the coming days and weeks. We invite your responses and reactions to how the second 2022 Budget affects you and your work.

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For further information or questions, please contact Greg Mullins, Head of Policy, greg.mullins@researchaustralia.org

Ends …..

FAQs

Is medical research archives a legitimate journal? ›

The Medical Research Archives (MRA) is an international scientific peer-reviewed journal committed to publishing research and clinical medicine in a timely and professional format. MRA is published both in print and online.

What is the Nhmrc levels of evidence? ›

NHMRC Levels of Evidence
LevelIntervention 1Prognosis
I 4A systematic review of level II studiesA systematic review of level II studies
IIA randomised controlled trialA prospective cohort study7
III-1A pseudorandomised controlled trial (i.e. alternate allocation or some other method)All or none8
3 more rows

What is Kei Journal? ›

KEI publishes research and commentary in a variety of journals, periodicals, books and other independent publishing platforms. In-house, KEI presents information in blogs, correspondence and reports, as well as in occasional KEI research notes and papers.

What are Nhmrc guidelines? ›

NHMRC guidelines are intended to promote health, prevent harm, encourage best practice and reduce waste. They are developed by multidisciplinary committees or panels that follow a rigorous evidence-based approach.

What is the most trusted medical journal? ›

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is recognized as the world's leading medical journal and website. Published continuously for over 200 years, NEJM delivers high-quality, peer-reviewed research and interactive clinical content to physicians, educators, researchers, and the global medical community.

What is the most trusted website of medical information? ›

MedlinePlus.gov is a website from the NIH's National Library of Medicine that has dependable consumer information about more than 1,000 health-related topics.

What level of evidence is considered the strongest? ›

The systematic review or meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evidence-based practice guidelines are considered to be the strongest level of evidence on which to guide practice decisions.

What is the highest level of medical evidence? ›

Both systems place randomized controlled trials (RCT) at the highest level and case series or expert opinions at the lowest level. The hierarchies rank studies according to the probability of bias. RCTs are given the highest level because they are designed to be unbiased and have less risk of systematic errors.

What is Level 7 evidence in research? ›

Evidence from a single descriptive or qualitative study. Level VII. Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees.

What is a Q1 journal? ›

Q1 is occupied by the top 25% of journals in the list; Q2 is occupied by journals in the 25 to 50% group; Q3 is occupied by journals in the 50 to 75% group and Q4 is occupied by journals in the 75 to 100% group. The most prestigious journals within a subject area are those occupying the first quartile, Q1.

What is tier1 journal? ›

Tier 1. High category (3.5-4) Peer-reviewed publications in one of the following: • Journal with Impact factor that falls in the top 25 percentile ranking based on the impact. factor within the subject, discipline, or sub-disciplinary category (refer to APPENDIX.

What is the difference between ARC and NHMRC? ›

For example, the ARC often focuses on discovery research, while the NHMRC typically values research translation into industry and commercialisation.

What is the purpose of the NHMRC? ›

NHMRC is the key driver of health and medical research in Australia. Aside from funding, we advise the Australian Government and facilitate networking in the research community by bringing academics and industry together. We build commercial literacy among researchers and help them protect intellectual property.

What are clinical guidelines Australia? ›

They are systematically developed to assist health professionals make clinical decisions about appropriate health care. Authors of clinical guidelines have appraised existing research in order to translate the evidence into actionable recommendations.

Which medical publications do doctors read most? ›

The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)

The JAMA is, reportedly, with the highest circulation for any journal in medicine and is offered in print and online. All of the research papers published are peer-reviewed and strictly reviewed.

How do you know if a medical journal is good? ›

The credibility of a journal may be assessed by examining several key factors:
  1. Where is it indexed? Is the journal included or indexed in the major bibliographic databases for the field? ...
  2. What is its publishing history? How long has the journal been available? ...
  3. Is it peer-reviewed? ...
  4. What is its impact factor?

What medical journals do doctors use? ›

We suggest starting your search with these five must-read healthcare publications.
  • PubMed. PubMed, a medical website from the US National Library of Medicine, provides doctors with abstracts and full articles on various medical topics. ...
  • Medscape. ...
  • WebMD. ...
  • American Medical Association (AMA) ...
  • Practice Builders' Blog.
3 Jul 2020

Which is the most complete medical database? ›

MEDLINE is the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) premier bibliographic database that contains more than 29 million references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine.

What are 3 reliable sources of health information? ›

health brochures in your local hospital, doctor's office or community health centre. telephone helplines such as NURSE-ON-CALL or Directline. your doctor or pharmacist. reliable health information websites, such as government sites, condition-specific sites, support organisation sites, and medical journals.

What is the least reliable source of health information? ›

The results showed that the family doctor and pharmacist were generally regarded as the most reliable sources, whereas TV advertisements, newspaper and magazine articles were among the least reliable.

What is the weakest evidence? ›

Testimonial evidence—the fancy auditor term for verbal evidence—is the weakest type of evidence.

Which type of research provides the strongest evidence? ›

Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses

Well done systematic reviews, with or without an included meta-analysis, are generally considered to provide the best evidence for all question types as they are based on the findings of multiple studies that were identified in comprehensive, systematic literature searches.

How do you determine the quality of evidence in research? ›

Assessing certainty of evidence
  1. Plan your approach to assessing certainty.
  2. Consider the importance of outcomes.
  3. Assess risk of bias (or study limitations)
  4. Assess inconsistency or heterogeneity.
  5. Assess indirectness.
  6. Assess imprecision.
  7. Assess publication biases.
  8. Consider reasons to upgrade the certainty of the evidence.
6 Sept 2019

What is the strongest type of evidence for proving a case? ›

Direct Evidence

The most powerful type of evidence, direct evidence requires no inference and directly proves the fact you are investigating.

What are the 4 most common types of evidence? ›

Discussed below are the four types of evidence you should know.
  • Real Evidence.
  • Testimonial Statements.
  • Demonstrative Evidence.
  • Documentary Evidence.
15 Oct 2021

What are the 5 levels of evidence in research? ›

Levels of Evidence
Levels of Evidence
Level IVEvidence from well-designed case-control or cohort studies.
Level VEvidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies (meta-synthesis).
Level VIEvidence from a single descriptive or qualitative study.
4 more rows
2 Nov 2022

What is a Level 1 study? ›

Level I: High quality randomized trial or prospective study; testing of previously developed diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients; sensible costs and alternatives; values obtained from many studies with multiway sensitivity analyses; systematic review of Level I RCTs and Level I studies.

What is Level 4 evidence in research? ›

Level IV: Evidence from guidelines developed from systematic reviews. Level V: Evidence from meta-syntheses of a group of descriptive or qualitative studies. Level VI: Evidence from evidence summaries of individual studies. Level VII: Evidence from one properly designed randomized controlled trial.

What is Level 6 evidence in research? ›

Level 6: Single Descriptive or Qualitative Study. Level 7: Expert Opinion. Level I Evidence. • Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled.

What are at least three signs that a journal is predatory? ›

The journal is difficult to locate in library catalogs, i.e. few major libraries subscribe to it. The scope is overly broad and/or does it fit well with your research. Publication frequency is irregular or not stated. May have the same or similar name to a legitimate journal.

What to do if you published in a predatory journal? ›

If your paper is published online by a predatory journal, you may write to the office of the predatory journal and ask them to withdraw the paper from their website. Although you are not guaranteed to get a response from a predatory journal, their paper might be taken down from the website.

What is a predatory medical journal? ›

Predatory journals are open-access medical journals that publish articles online with little or no peer review, low academic standards, and little credibility. They exist to publish scholarly journal articles for authors who require publications for their curricula vitae.

What is a good rank for a journal? ›

In most fields, the impact factor of 10 or greater is considered an excellent score while 3 is flagged as good and the average score is less than 1. This is a rule of thumb. However, the wild card to pay attention to is that impact factor and comparing journals are most effective in the same discipline.

How do I know if a journal is Q1? ›

There are several groups that rate academic journals, and the standard that the university administration has set is that a journal will be considered as Q1 if it is rated as such by all three of the following rating groups: Scopus, Scimago, and Web of Science/Clarivate.

How do you search the Q1 Q2 Q3/Q4 Q4? ›

For checking of journal quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) for the indexed journals in the ISI/SSCI one can check Master journal list and Journal citation report. You can search from the web of science, Journal Citation Reports.

What is Q1 Q2 Q3/Q4 journal? ›

Each subject category of journals is divided into four quartiles: Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4. Q1 is occupied by the top 25% of journals in the list; Q2 is occupied by journals in the 25 to 50% group; Q3 is occupied by journals in the 50 to 75% group and Q4 is occupied by journals in the 75 to 100% group.

Is Tier 1 or 3 better? ›

Tier 1 Credit is the highest tier of credit, while Tier 3 is the lowest. If you have a credit score that has made it into Tier 1, this ranking means you will only need to provide minimal information if applying for a loan.

What are 4 star journals? ›

The idea that research could be described as '4*' came from the UK's Research Excellence Framework (REF). Four-star research is 'world-leading in terms of originality, significance and rigour'.

Does arc fund medical research? ›

The ARC funds all research (excluding clinical and preclinical health and medical research) across Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), and the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (HASS).

What is ARC in healthcare? ›

ARC (Advanced Rehabilitation and Conditioning®) for cardiac patients specifically is LifeWorks Rehab's proven short-term (7-10 days) medically supervised inpatient program to help you prepare for the transition back to home and everyday life. As an ARC patient, you'll begin your recovery program as soon as you arrive.

What does ARC stand for medical? ›

Adult residential care (ARC) is a package of services provided by an assisted living facility that is licensed under Chapter 18.20 RCW and that has a contract with the department under RCW 74.39A. 020 to provide personal care services.

What are the four main NHMRC levels of evidence? ›

  • A. One or more level I studies with a low risk of bias or several level II studies with a low risk of bias.
  • B. One or two Level II studies with a low risk of bias or SR/several Level III studies with a low risk of bias.
  • C. ...
  • D.

How many NHMRC grants can you hold? ›

A maximum of two (New) grants may be held concurrently by any individual, with the following exceptions and conditions: Individuals may apply for an Investigator Grant concurrently with an Ideas Grant; if both applications are successful, only the Investigator Grant will be awarded.

Why did the NHMRC release the Australian guidelines for the prevention and control of infection in healthcare? ›

The guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations that outline the critical aspects of infection prevention and control, focusing on core principles and priority areas for action. The guidelines have been developed to specifically support improved infection prevention and control in acute health settings.

What are the 3 main Good Clinical Practice principles? ›

GCP - 13 Principles

The rights, safety, and well-being of the trial subjects are the most important considerations and should prevail over interests of science and society.

What are the seven criteria for high quality clinical documentation? ›

There are seven characteristics that should be seen within clinical documentation for it to be recognized as high quality.
...
Clinical Impact of CDI
  • Clear.
  • Consistent.
  • Complete.
  • Reliable.
  • Legible.
  • Precise.
  • Timely.
31 Mar 2020

What the are the five 5 requirements for documentation from the Australian Council on Health Care standards? ›

For documentation to support the delivery of safe, high-quality care, it should: Be clear, legible, concise, contemporaneous, progressive and accurate.

How do I know if a medical journal is legit? ›

The credibility of a journal may be assessed by examining several key factors:
  • Where is it indexed? Is the journal included or indexed in the major bibliographic databases for the field? ...
  • What is its publishing history? How long has the journal been available? ...
  • Is it peer-reviewed? ...
  • What is its impact factor?

How do you know if a research journal is real? ›

Genuine journals should have a named editor and editorial board, with full and traceable contact details, be peer-reviewed, and publish information on charges, procedures, copyright and licences openly on their website.

Is archives com a legitimate website? ›

Archives has a consumer rating of 1.19 stars from 150 reviews indicating that most customers are generally dissatisfied with their purchases. Consumers complaining about Archives most frequently mention credit card, free trial and customer service problems. Archives ranks 47th among History sites.

Is the Medical Journal of Australia Reliable? ›

We see this reflected in recent journal metrics, with over 335,000 monthly views online, our highest ever impact factor achieved in 2021 (12.8) and we are among the top 17 general medical journals globally.

Who are the top 5 journal publishers? ›

According to the Granada study, the 10 leading companies were:
  • Routledge.
  • Cambridge University Press.
  • Elsevier.
  • Nova Science Publishers.
  • Edward Elgar.
  • Information Age Publishing.
  • Princeton University Press.
  • University of California Press.

What are fake journals called? ›

Predatory journals—also called fraudulent, deceptive, or pseudo-journals—are publications that claim to be legitimate scholarly journals, but misrepresent their publishing practices.

What website is the best place to find original research papers online? ›

Google Scholar

Looking for an academic article, thesis, or abstract? Google Scholar should be your first stop. Google Scholar helps you find related works, locate full documents at your school library, and access scholarly research. While Google created Google Scholar, it's very different from a general online search.

Are there fake journals? ›

But the flipside is that the burgeoning field of open access journals has given rise to fake journals, also known as predatory, deceptive, fraudulent, clone, or pseudo-journals (Beall, Nature 2012). These journals are ones that do not engage in peer review and have minimal or little copy edits.

Why are archives reliable? ›

Often a reliable source of primary research, archive content documents significant historical findings, providing a level of accountability to current research.

Who is behind archive org? ›

Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in May 1996 around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.

Are archives biased? ›

Bias in Archives and Special Collections

Archives have never been neutral. Sometimes, what you discover, or don't discover, in archives has less to do with digitization or description, and more to do with historical and internalized racism, classism, sexism, and ignorance of marginalized genders and sexualities.

Which medical journal has highest impact factor? ›

High impact medical journals
  • New England journal of medicine.
  • JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association.
  • BMJ. British medical journal.
  • Nature reviews disease primers.
  • Annals of internal medicine.
  • JAMA internal Medicine.
  • Journal of travel medicine.
  • Lancet digital health.
16 Nov 2022

What happens if you publish in predatory journal? ›

The papers you publish in predatory journals are unlikely to be cited, which will affect the impact of your research and, if you care about such things, it will stop metrics such as your h-index growing as fast as it could. Perhaps the most worrying aspect is the lack of peer review, with all that entails.

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