EXPLAIN (Transact-SQL) - SQL Server (2023)

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Applies to: EXPLAIN (Transact-SQL) - SQL Server (1) Azure Synapse Analytics

Returns the query plan for an Azure Synapse Analytics SQL statement without running the statement. Use EXPLAIN to preview which operations will require data movement and to view the estimated costs of the query operations. WITH RECOMMENDATIONS applies to Azure Synapse Analytics.

Syntax

EXPLAIN [WITH_RECOMMENDATIONS] SQL_statement [;] 

Note

This syntax is not supported by serverless SQL pool in Azure Synapse Analytics.

Arguments

SQL_statement

The SQL statement on which EXPLAIN will run. SQL_statement can be any of these commands: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE TABLE AS SELECT, CREATE REMOTE TABLE.

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WITH_RECOMMENDATIONS

Return the query plan with recommendations to optimize the SQL statement performance.

Permissions

Requires the SHOWPLAN permission, and permission to execute SQL_statement. See Permissions: GRANT, DENY, REVOKE (Azure Synapse Analytics, Parallel Data Warehouse).

Return Value

The return value from the EXPLAIN command is an XML document with the structure shown below. This XML document lists all operations in the query plan for the given query, each enclosed by the <dsql_operation> tag. The return value is of type nvarchar(max).

The returned query plan depicts sequential SQL statements; when the query runs it may involve parallelized operations, so some of the sequential statements shown may run at the same time.

\<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <dsql_query> <sql>. . .</sql> <params /> <dsql_operations> <dsql_operation> . . . </dsql_operation> [ . . . n ] <dsql_operations> </dsql_query> 

The XML tags contain this information:

XML TagSummary, Attributes, and Content
<dsql_query>Top level/document element.
<sql>Echoes SQL_statement.
<params>This tag is not used at this time.
<materialized_view_candidates> (preview)Contains the CREATE statement of the recommended materialized view for the SQL statement's better performance.
<dsql_operations>Summarizes and contains the query steps, and includes cost information for the query. Also contains all of the <dsql_operation> blocks. This tag contains count information for the entire query:

<dsql_operations total_cost=total_cost total_number_operations=total_number_operations>

total_cost is the total estimated time for the query to run, in ms.

total_number_operations is the total number of operations for the query. An operation that will be parallelized and run on multiple nodes is counted as a single operation.

<dsql_operation>Describes a single operation within the query plan. The <dsql_operation> tag contains the operation type as an attribute:

<dsql_operation operation_type=operation_type>

operation_type is one of the values found in sys.dm_pdw_request_steps (Transact-SQL).

The content in the \<dsql_operation> block is dependent on the operation type.

See the table below.

Operation TypeContentExample
BROADCAST_MOVE, DISTRIBUTE_REPLICATED_TABLE_MOVE, MASTER_TABLE_MOVE, PARTITION_MOVE, SHUFFLE_MOVE, and TRIM_MOVE<operation_cost> element, with these attributes. Values reflect only the local operation:

- cost is the local operator cost and shows the estimated time for the operation to run, in ms.
- accumulative_cost is the sum of all seen operations in the plan including summed values for parallel operations, in ms.
- average_rowsize is the estimated average row size (in bytes) of rows retrieved and passed during the operation.
- output_rows is the output (node) cardinality and shows the number of output rows.

<location>: The nodes or distributions where the operation will occur. Options are: "Control", "ComputeNode", "AllComputeNodes", "AllDistributions", "SubsetDistributions", "Distribution", and "SubsetNodes".

<source_statement>: The source data for the shuffle move.

<destination_table>: The internal temporary table the data will be moved into.

<shuffle_columns>: (Applicable only to SHUFFLE_MOVE operations). One or more columns that will be used as the distribution columns for the temporary table.

<operation_cost cost="40" accumulative_cost="40" average_rowsize = "50" output_rows="100"/>

<location distribution="AllDistributions" />

<source_statement type="statement">SELECT [TableAlias_3b77ee1d8ccf4a94ba644118b355db9d].[dist_date] FROM [qatest].[dbo].[flyers] [TableAlias_3b77ee1d8ccf4a94ba644118b355db9d] </source_statement>

<destination_table>Q_[TEMP_ID_259]_[PARTITION_ID]</destination_table>

<shuffle_columns>dist_date;</shuffle_columns>

<shuffle_columns>Email;Date;</shuffle_columns>

MetaDataCreate_Operation<source_table>: The source table for the operation.

<destination_table>: The destination table for the operation.

<source_table>databases</source_table>

<destination_table>MetaDataCreateLandingTempTable</destination_table>

ON<location>: See <location> above.

<sql_operation>: Identifies the SQL command that will be performed on a node.

<location permanent="false" distribution="AllDistributions">Compute</location>

<sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo]. [Q_[TEMP_ID_259]]_ [PARTITION_ID]]]([dist_date] DATE) WITH (DISTRIBUTION = HASH([dist_date]),) </sql_operation>

RemoteOnOperation<DestinationCatalog>: The destination catalog.

<DestinationSchema>: The destination schema in DestinationCatalog.

<DestinationTableName>: Name of the destination table or "TableName".

<DestinationDatasource>: Name of the destination datasource.

<Username> and <Password>: These fields indicate that a username and password for the destination may be required.

<CreateStatement>: The table creation statement for the destination database.

<DestinationCatalog>master</DestinationCatalog>

<DestinationSchema>dbo</DestinationSchema>

<DestinationTableName>TableName</DestinationTableName>

<DestinationDatasource>DestDataSource</DestinationDatasource>

<Username>...</Username>

<Password>...</Password>

<CreateStatement>CREATE TABLE [master].[dbo].[TableName] ([col1] BIGINT) ON [PRIMARY] WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</CreateStatement>

RETURN<resultset>: The identifier for the result set.<resultset>RS_19</resultset>
RND_ID<identifier>: The identifier for the object created.<identifier>TEMP_ID_260</identifier>

Limitations and Restrictions

EXPLAIN can be applied to optimizable queries only, which are queries that can be improved or modified based on the results of an EXPLAIN command. The supported EXPLAIN commands are listed above. Attempting to use EXPLAIN with an unsupported query type will either return an error or echo the query.

EXPLAIN is not supported in a user transaction.

Examples

The following example shows an EXPLAIN command run on a SELECT statement, and the XML result.

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Submitting an EXPLAIN statement

The submitted command for this example is:

-- Uses AdventureWorks EXPLAIN SELECT CAST (AVG(YearlyIncome) AS int) AS AverageIncome, CAST(AVG(FIS.SalesAmount) AS int) AS AverageSales, G.StateProvinceName, T.SalesTerritoryGroup FROM dbo.DimGeography AS G JOIN dbo.DimSalesTerritory AS T ON G.SalesTerritoryKey = T.SalesTerritoryKey JOIN dbo.DimCustomer AS C ON G.GeographyKey = C.GeographyKey JOIN dbo.FactInternetSales AS FIS ON C.CustomerKey = FIS.CustomerKey WHERE T.SalesTerritoryGroup IN ('North America', 'Pacific') AND Gender = 'F' GROUP BY G.StateProvinceName, T.SalesTerritoryGroup ORDER BY AVG(YearlyIncome) DESC; GO 

After executing the statement using the EXPLAIN option, the message tab presents a single line titled explain, and starting with the XML text \<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> Select the XML to open the entire text in an XML window. To better understand the following comments, you should turn on the display of line numbers in SSDT.

To turn on line numbers

  1. With the output appearing in the explain tab SSDT, on the TOOLS menu, select Options.

  2. Expand the Text Editor section, expand XML, and then select General.

  3. In the Display area, check Line numbers.

  4. Select OK.

Example EXPLAIN output

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The XML result of the EXPLAIN command with row numbers turned on is:

1 \<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> 2 <dsql_query> 3 <sql>SELECT CAST (AVG(YearlyIncome) AS int) AS AverageIncome, 4 CAST(AVG(FIS.SalesAmount) AS int) AS AverageSales, 5 G.StateProvinceName, T.SalesTerritoryGroup 6 FROM dbo.DimGeography AS G 7 JOIN dbo.DimSalesTerritory AS T 8 ON G.SalesTerritoryKey = T.SalesTerritoryKey 9 JOIN dbo.DimCustomer AS C 10 ON G.GeographyKey = C.GeographyKey 11 JOIN dbo.FactInternetSales AS FIS 12 ON C.CustomerKey = FIS.CustomerKey 13 WHERE T.SalesTerritoryGroup IN ('North America', 'Pacific') 14 AND Gender = 'F' 15 GROUP BY G.StateProvinceName, T.SalesTerritoryGroup 16 ORDER BY AVG(YearlyIncome) DESC</sql> 17 <dsql_operations total_cost="0.926237696" total_number_operations="9"> 18 <dsql_operation operation_type="RND_ID"> 19 <identifier>TEMP_ID_16893</identifier> 20 </dsql_operation> 21 <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> 22 <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> 23 <sql_operations> 24 <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_16893] ([CustomerKey] INT NOT NULL, [GeographyKey] INT, [YearlyIncome] MONEY ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> 25 </sql_operations> 26 </dsql_operation> 27 <dsql_operation operation_type="BROADCAST_MOVE"> 28 <operation_cost cost="0.121431552" accumulative_cost="0.121431552" average_rowsize="16" output_rows="31.6228" /> 29 <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[CustomerKey] AS [CustomerKey], 30 [T1_1].[GeographyKey] AS [GeographyKey], 31 [T1_1].[YearlyIncome] AS [YearlyIncome] 32 FROM (SELECT [T2_1].[CustomerKey] AS [CustomerKey], 33 [T2_1].[GeographyKey] AS [GeographyKey], 34 [T2_1].[YearlyIncome] AS [YearlyIncome] 35 FROM [AdventureWorksPDW2012].[dbo].[DimCustomer] AS T2_1 36 WHERE ([T2_1].[Gender] = CAST (N'F' COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS AS NVARCHAR (1)) COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS)) AS T1_1</source_statement> 37 <destination_table>[TEMP_ID_16893]</destination_table> 38 </dsql_operation> 39 <dsql_operation operation_type="RND_ID"> 40 <identifier>TEMP_ID_16894</identifier> 41 </dsql_operation> 42 <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> 43 <location permanent="false" distribution="AllDistributions" /> 44 <sql_operations> 45 <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_16894] ([StateProvinceName] NVARCHAR(50) COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS, [SalesTerritoryGroup] NVARCHAR(50) COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS NOT NULL, [col] BIGINT, [col1] MONEY NOT NULL, [col2] BIGINT, [col3] MONEY NOT NULL ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> 46 </sql_operations> 47 </dsql_operation> 48 <dsql_operation operation_type="SHUFFLE_MOVE"> 49 <operation_cost cost="0.804806144" accumulative_cost="0.926237696" average_rowsize="232" output_rows="108.406" /> 50 <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName], 51 [T1_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup], 52 [T1_1].[col2] AS [col], 53 [T1_1].[col] AS [col1], 54 [T1_1].[col3] AS [col2], 55 [T1_1].[col1] AS [col3] 56 FROM (SELECT ISNULL([T2_1].[col1], CONVERT (MONEY, 0.00, 0)) AS [col], 57 ISNULL([T2_1].[col3], CONVERT (MONEY, 0.00, 0)) AS [col1], 58 [T2_1].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName], 59 [T2_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup], 60 [T2_1].[col] AS [col2], 61 [T2_1].[col2] AS [col3] 62 FROM (SELECT COUNT_BIG([T3_2].[YearlyIncome]) AS [col], 63 SUM([T3_2].[YearlyIncome]) AS [col1], 64 COUNT_BIG(CAST ((0) AS INT)) AS [col2], 65 SUM([T3_2].[SalesAmount]) AS [col3], 66 [T3_2].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName], 67 [T3_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup] 68 FROM (SELECT [T4_1].[SalesTerritoryKey] AS [SalesTerritoryKey], 69 [T4_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup] 70 FROM [AdventureWorksPDW2012].[dbo].[DimSalesTerritory] AS T4_1 71 WHERE (([T4_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] = CAST (N'North America' COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS AS NVARCHAR (13)) COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS) 72 OR ([T4_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] = CAST (N'Pacific' COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS AS NVARCHAR (7)) COLLATE Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS))) AS T3_1 73 INNER JOIN 74 (SELECT [T4_1].[SalesTerritoryKey] AS [SalesTerritoryKey], 75 [T4_2].[YearlyIncome] AS [YearlyIncome], 76 [T4_2].[SalesAmount] AS [SalesAmount], 77 [T4_1].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName] 78 FROM [AdventureWorksPDW2012].[dbo].[DimGeography] AS T4_1 79 INNER JOIN 80 (SELECT [T5_2].[GeographyKey] AS [GeographyKey], 81 [T5_2].[YearlyIncome] AS [YearlyIncome], 82 [T5_1].[SalesAmount] AS [SalesAmount] 83 FROM [AdventureWorksPDW2012].[dbo].[FactInternetSales] AS T5_1 84 INNER JOIN 85 [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_16893] AS T5_2 86 ON ([T5_1].[CustomerKey] = [T5_2].[CustomerKey])) AS T4_2 87 ON ([T4_2].[GeographyKey] = [T4_1].[GeographyKey])) AS T3_2 88 ON ([T3_1].[SalesTerritoryKey] = [T3_2].[SalesTerritoryKey]) 89 GROUP BY [T3_2].[StateProvinceName], [T3_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup]) AS T2_1) AS T1_1</source_statement> 90 <destination_table>[TEMP_ID_16894]</destination_table> 91 <shuffle_columns>StateProvinceName;</shuffle_columns> 92 </dsql_operation> 93 <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> 94 <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> 95 <sql_operations> 96 <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_16893]</sql_operation> 97 </sql_operations> 98 </dsql_operation> 99 <dsql_operation operation_type="RETURN"> 100 <location distribution="AllDistributions" /> 101 <select>SELECT [T1_1].[col] AS [col], 102 [T1_1].[col1] AS [col1], 103 [T1_1].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName], 104 [T1_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup], 105 [T1_1].[col2] AS [col2] 106 FROM (SELECT CONVERT (INT, [T2_1].[col], 0) AS [col], 107 CONVERT (INT, [T2_1].[col1], 0) AS [col1], 108 [T2_1].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName], 109 [T2_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup], 110 [T2_1].[col] AS [col2] 111 FROM (SELECT CASE 112 WHEN ([T3_1].[col] = CAST ((0) AS BIGINT)) THEN CAST (NULL AS MONEY) 113 ELSE ([T3_1].[col1] / CONVERT (MONEY, [T3_1].[col], 0)) 114 END AS [col], 115 CASE 116 WHEN ([T3_1].[col2] = CAST ((0) AS BIGINT)) THEN CAST (NULL AS MONEY) 117 ELSE ([T3_1].[col3] / CONVERT (MONEY, [T3_1].[col2], 0)) 118 END AS [col1], 119 [T3_1].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName], 120 [T3_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup] 121 FROM (SELECT ISNULL([T4_1].[col], CONVERT (BIGINT, 0, 0)) AS [col], 122 ISNULL([T4_1].[col1], CONVERT (MONEY, 0.00, 0)) AS [col1], 123 ISNULL([T4_1].[col2], CONVERT (BIGINT, 0, 0)) AS [col2], 124 ISNULL([T4_1].[col3], CONVERT (MONEY, 0.00, 0)) AS [col3], 125 [T4_1].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName], 126 [T4_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup] 127 FROM (SELECT SUM([T5_1].[col]) AS [col], 128 SUM([T5_1].[col1]) AS [col1], 129 SUM([T5_1].[col2]) AS [col2], 130 SUM([T5_1].[col3]) AS [col3], 131 [T5_1].[StateProvinceName] AS [StateProvinceName], 132 [T5_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup] AS [SalesTerritoryGroup] 133 FROM [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_16894] AS T5_1 134 GROUP BY [T5_1].[StateProvinceName], [T5_1].[SalesTerritoryGroup]) AS T4_1) AS T3_1) AS T2_1) AS T1_1 135 ORDER BY [T1_1].[col2] DESC</select> 136 </dsql_operation> 137 <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> 138 <location permanent="false" distribution="AllDistributions" /> 139 <sql_operations> 140 <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_16894]</sql_operation> 141 </sql_operations> 142 </dsql_operation> 143 </dsql_operations> 144 </dsql_query> 

Meaning of the EXPLAIN output

The output above contains 144 numbered lines. Your output from this query may differ slightly. The following list describes significant sections.

  • Lines 3 through 16 provide a description of the query that is being analyzed.

  • Line 17, specifies that the total number of operations will be 9. You can find the start of each operation, by looking for the words dsql_operation.

  • Line 18 starts operation 1. Lines 18 and 19 indicate that a RND_ID operation will create a random ID number that will be used for an object description. The object described in the output above is TEMP_ID_16893. Your number will be different.

  • Line 20 starts operation 2. Lines 21 through 25: On all compute nodes, create a temporary table named TEMP_ID_16893.

  • Line 26 starts operation 3. Lines 27 through 37: Move data to TEMP_ID_16893 by using a broadcast move. The query sent to each compute node is provided. Line 37 specifies the destination table is TEMP_ID_16893.

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  • Line 38 starts operation 4. Lines 39 through 40: Create a random ID for a table. TEMP_ID_16894 is the ID number in the example above. Your number will be different.

  • Line 41 starts operation 5. Lines 42 through 46: On all nodes, create a temporary table named TEMP_ID_16894.

  • Line 47 starts operation 6. Lines 48 through 91: Move data from various tables (including TEMP_ID_16893) to table TEMP_ID_16894, by using a shuffle move operation. The query sent to each compute node is provided. Line 90 specifies the destination table as TEMP_ID_16894. Line 91 specifies the columns.

  • Line 92 starts operation 7. Lines 93 through 97: On all compute nodes, drop temporary table TEMP_ID_16893.

  • Line 98 starts operation 8. Lines 99 through 135: Return results to the client. Uses the query provided to get the results.

  • Line 136 starts operation 9. Lines 137 through 140: On all nodes, drop temporary table TEMP_ID_16894.

Submitting an EXPLAIN statement WITH_RECOMMENDATIONS

EXPLAIN WITH_RECOMMENDATIONSselect count(*)from ((select distinct c_last_name, c_first_name, d_date from store_sales, date_dim, customer where store_sales.ss_sold_date_sk = date_dim.d_date_sk and store_sales.ss_customer_sk = customer.c_customer_sk and d_month_seq between 1194 and 1194+11) except (select distinct c_last_name, c_first_name, d_date from catalog_sales, date_dim, customer where catalog_sales.cs_sold_date_sk = date_dim.d_date_sk and catalog_sales.cs_bill_customer_sk = customer.c_customer_sk and d_month_seq between 1194 and 1194+11)) top_customers

Example output for EXPLAIN WITH_RECOMMENDATIONS

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The output below includes the creation of a recommended materialized view called View1.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><dsql_query number_nodes="1" number_distributions="8" number_distributions_per_node="8"> <sql>select count(*) from ((select distinct c_last_name, c_first_name, d_date from store_sales, date_dim, customer where store_sales.ss_sold_date_sk = date_dim.d_date_sk and store_sales.ss_customer_sk = customer.c_customer_sk and d_month_seq between 1194 and 1194+11) except (select distinct c_last_name, c_first_name, d_date from catalog_sales, date_dim, customer where catalog_sales.cs_sold_date_sk = date_dim.d_date_sk and catalog_sales.cs_bill_customer_sk = customer.c_customer_sk and d_month_seq between 1194 and 1194+11)) top_customers</sql> <materialized_view_candidates> <materialized_view_candidates with_constants="False">CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW View1 WITH (DISTRIBUTION = HASH([Expr0])) ASSELECT [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_last_name] AS [Expr0], [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_first_name] AS [Expr1], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date] AS [Expr2], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_month_seq] AS [Expr3]FROM [dbo].[store_sales], [dbo].[date_dim], [dbo].[customer]WHERE ([tpcds10].[dbo].[store_sales].[ss_customer_sk]=[tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_customer_sk]) AND ([tpcds10].[dbo].[store_sales].[ss_sold_date_sk]=[tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date_sk])GROUP BY [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_last_name], [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_first_name], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_month_seq]</materialized_view_candidates> <materialized_view_candidates with_constants="False">CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW View2 WITH (DISTRIBUTION = HASH([Expr0])) ASSELECT [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_last_name] AS [Expr0], [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_first_name] AS [Expr1], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date] AS [Expr2], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_month_seq] AS [Expr3]FROM [dbo].[catalog_sales], [dbo].[date_dim], [dbo].[customer]WHERE ([tpcds10].[dbo].[catalog_sales].[cs_bill_customer_sk]=[tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_customer_sk]) AND ([tpcds10].[dbo].[catalog_sales].[cs_sold_date_sk]=[tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date_sk])GROUP BY [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_last_name], [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_first_name], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_month_seq]</materialized_view_candidates> <materialized_view_candidates with_constants="True">CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW View3 WITH (DISTRIBUTION = HASH([Expr0])) ASSELECT [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_last_name] AS [Expr0], [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_first_name] AS [Expr1], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date] AS [Expr2]FROM [dbo].[store_sales], [dbo].[date_dim], [dbo].[customer]WHERE ([tpcds10].[dbo].[store_sales].[ss_customer_sk]=[tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_customer_sk]) AND ([tpcds10].[dbo].[store_sales].[ss_sold_date_sk]=[tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date_sk]) AND ([tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_month_seq]&gt;=(1194)) AND ([tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_month_seq]&lt;=(1205))GROUP BY [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_last_name], [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_first_name], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date]</materialized_view_candidates> <materialized_view_candidates with_constants="True">CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW View4 WITH (DISTRIBUTION = HASH([Expr0])) ASSELECT [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_last_name] AS [Expr0], [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_first_name] AS [Expr1], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date] AS [Expr2]FROM [dbo].[catalog_sales], [dbo].[date_dim], [dbo].[customer]WHERE ([tpcds10].[dbo].[catalog_sales].[cs_bill_customer_sk]=[tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_customer_sk]) AND ([tpcds10].[dbo].[catalog_sales].[cs_sold_date_sk]=[tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date_sk]) AND ([tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_month_seq]&gt;=(1194)) AND ([tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_month_seq]&lt;=(1205))GROUP BY [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_last_name], [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer].[c_first_name], [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim].[d_date]</materialized_view_candidates> </materialized_view_candidates> <dsql_operations total_cost="3472197.35650704" total_number_operations="28"> <dsql_operation operation_type="RND_ID"> <identifier>TEMP_ID_1</identifier> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_1] ([c_customer_sk] INT NOT NULL, [c_first_name] CHAR(20) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS, [c_last_name] CHAR(30) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="BROADCAST_MOVE"> <operation_cost cost="842400" accumulative_cost="842400" average_rowsize="54" output_rows="65000000" GroupNumber="44" /> <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[c_customer_sk] AS [c_customer_sk], [T1_1].[c_first_name] AS [c_first_name], [T1_1].[c_last_name] AS [c_last_name]FROM [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer] AS T1_1</source_statement> <destination_table>[TEMP_ID_1]</destination_table> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="RND_ID"> <identifier>TEMP_ID_2</identifier> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_2] ([d_date_sk] INT NOT NULL, [d_date] DATE ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="BROADCAST_MOVE"> <operation_cost cost="0.62729352" accumulative_cost="842400.62729352" average_rowsize="7" output_rows="373.389" GroupNumber="43" /> <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[d_date_sk] AS [d_date_sk], [T1_1].[d_date] AS [d_date]FROM (SELECT [T2_1].[d_date_sk] AS [d_date_sk], [T2_1].[d_date] AS [d_date] FROM [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim] AS T2_1 WHERE (([T2_1].[d_month_seq] &gt;= CAST ((1194) AS INT)) AND ([T2_1].[d_month_seq] &lt;= CAST ((1205) AS INT)))) AS T1_1</source_statement> <destination_table>[TEMP_ID_2]</destination_table> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="RND_ID"> <identifier>TEMP_ID_3</identifier> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllDistributions" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_3] ([cs_bill_customer_sk] INT, [d_date] DATE ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="SHUFFLE_MOVE"> <operation_cost cost="610362.9" accumulative_cost="1452763.52729352" average_rowsize="7" output_rows="2906490000" GroupNumber="57" /> <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[cs_bill_customer_sk] AS [cs_bill_customer_sk], [T1_1].[d_date] AS [d_date]FROM (SELECT [T2_2].[cs_bill_customer_sk] AS [cs_bill_customer_sk], [T2_1].[d_date] AS [d_date] FROM [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_2] AS T2_1 INNER JOIN [tpcds10].[dbo].[catalog_sales] AS T2_2 ON ([T2_2].[cs_sold_date_sk] = [T2_1].[d_date_sk])) AS T1_1</source_statement> <destination_table>[TEMP_ID_3]</destination_table> <shuffle_columns>d_date;</shuffle_columns> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_2]</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="RND_ID"> <identifier>TEMP_ID_4</identifier> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_4] ([c_customer_sk] INT NOT NULL, [c_first_name] CHAR(20) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS, [c_last_name] CHAR(30) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="BROADCAST_MOVE"> <operation_cost cost="842400" accumulative_cost="2295163.52729352" average_rowsize="54" output_rows="65000000" GroupNumber="36" /> <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[c_customer_sk] AS [c_customer_sk], [T1_1].[c_first_name] AS [c_first_name], [T1_1].[c_last_name] AS [c_last_name]FROM [tpcds10].[dbo].[customer] AS T1_1</source_statement> <destination_table>[TEMP_ID_4]</destination_table> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="RND_ID"> <identifier>TEMP_ID_5</identifier> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_5] ([d_date_sk] INT NOT NULL, [d_date] DATE ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="BROADCAST_MOVE"> <operation_cost cost="0.62729352" accumulative_cost="2295164.15458704" average_rowsize="7" output_rows="373.389" GroupNumber="35" /> <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[d_date_sk] AS [d_date_sk], [T1_1].[d_date] AS [d_date]FROM (SELECT [T2_1].[d_date_sk] AS [d_date_sk], [T2_1].[d_date] AS [d_date] FROM [tpcds10].[dbo].[date_dim] AS T2_1 WHERE (([T2_1].[d_month_seq] &gt;= CAST ((1194) AS INT)) AND ([T2_1].[d_month_seq] &lt;= CAST ((1205) AS INT)))) AS T1_1</source_statement> <destination_table>[TEMP_ID_5]</destination_table> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="RND_ID"> <identifier>TEMP_ID_6</identifier> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllDistributions" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_6] ([ss_customer_sk] INT, [d_date] DATE ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="SHUFFLE_MOVE"> <operation_cost cost="1177033.2" accumulative_cost="3472197.35458704" average_rowsize="7" output_rows="5604920000" GroupNumber="54" /> <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[ss_customer_sk] AS [ss_customer_sk], [T1_1].[d_date] AS [d_date]FROM (SELECT [T2_2].[ss_customer_sk] AS [ss_customer_sk], [T2_1].[d_date] AS [d_date] FROM [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_5] AS T2_1 INNER JOIN [tpcds10].[dbo].[store_sales] AS T2_2 ON ([T2_2].[ss_sold_date_sk] = [T2_1].[d_date_sk])) AS T1_1</source_statement> <destination_table>[TEMP_ID_6]</destination_table> <shuffle_columns>d_date;</shuffle_columns> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_5]</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="Control" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">CREATE TABLE [tempdb].[QTables].[QTable_87367172aa554f06b73cf3ed97e5b985] ([col] BIGINT ) WITH(DATA_COMPRESSION=PAGE);</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="PARTITION_MOVE"> <operation_cost cost="0.00192" accumulative_cost="3472197.35650704" average_rowsize="8" output_rows="1" GroupNumber="66" /> <location distribution="AllDistributions" /> <source_statement>SELECT [T1_1].[col] AS [col]FROM (SELECT COUNT_BIG(CAST ((0) AS INT)) AS [col] FROM (SELECT 0 AS [col] FROM [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_4] AS T3_1 INNER JOIN [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_6] AS T3_2 ON ([T3_2].[ss_customer_sk] = [T3_1].[c_customer_sk]) GROUP BY [T3_1].[c_last_name], [T3_1].[c_first_name], [T3_2].[d_date] HAVING NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 AS C1 FROM [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_1] AS T4_1 INNER JOIN [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_3] AS T4_2 ON ([T4_2].[cs_bill_customer_sk] = [T4_1].[c_customer_sk]) GROUP BY [T4_1].[c_last_name], [T4_1].[c_first_name], [T4_2].[d_date] HAVING (([T3_1].[c_last_name] = [T4_1].[c_last_name] OR ([T3_1].[c_last_name] IS NULL AND [T4_1].[c_last_name] IS NULL)) AND ([T3_1].[c_first_name] = [T4_1].[c_first_name] OR ([T3_1].[c_first_name] IS NULL AND [T4_1].[c_first_name] IS NULL)) AND ([T3_2].[d_date] = [T4_2].[d_date] OR ([T3_2].[d_date] IS NULL AND [T4_2].[d_date] IS NULL))))) AS T2_1 GROUP BY [T2_1].[col]) AS T1_1</source_statement> <destination>Control</destination> <destination_table>[QTable_87367172aa554f06b73cf3ed97e5b985]</destination_table> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllDistributions" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_6]</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_4]</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllDistributions" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_3]</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="AllComputeNodes" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[dbo].[TEMP_ID_1]</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="RETURN"> <location distribution="Control" /> <select>SELECT [T1_1].[col] AS [col]FROM (SELECT CONVERT (INT, [T2_1].[col], 0) AS [col] FROM (SELECT ISNULL([T3_1].[col], CONVERT (BIGINT, 0, 0)) AS [col] FROM (SELECT SUM([T4_1].[col]) AS [col] FROM [tempdb].[QTables].[QTable_87367172aa554f06b73cf3ed97e5b985] AS T4_1) AS T3_1) AS T2_1) AS T1_1</select> </dsql_operation> <dsql_operation operation_type="ON"> <location permanent="false" distribution="Control" /> <sql_operations> <sql_operation type="statement">DROP TABLE [tempdb].[QTables].[QTable_87367172aa554f06b73cf3ed97e5b985]</sql_operation> </sql_operations> </dsql_operation> </dsql_operations></dsql_query>

See also

sys.pdw_materialized_view_column_distribution_properties (Transact-SQL)
sys.pdw_materialized_view_distribution_properties (Transact-SQL)
sys.pdw_materialized_view_mappings (Transact-SQL)
Azure Synapse Analytics and Parallel Data Warehouse Catalog Views
System views supported in Azure Synapse Analytics
T-SQL statements supported in Azure Synapse Analytics

Next steps

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW AS SELECT (Transact-SQL)
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW (Transact-SQL)
DBCC PDW_SHOWMATERIALIZEDVIEWOVERHEAD (Transact-SQL)

FAQs

What is Transact-SQL in SQL Server? ›

T-SQL (Transact-SQL) is a set of programming extensions from Sybase and Microsoft that add several features to the Structured Query Language (SQL), including transaction control, exception and error handling, row processing and declared variables.

What is transaction in SQL Server with example? ›

A transaction is a single unit of work. If a transaction is successful, all of the data modifications made during the transaction are committed and become a permanent part of the database. If a transaction encounters errors and must be canceled or rolled back, then all of the data modifications are erased.

What is the difference between SQL and T-SQL? ›

SQL is a query language that serves the purpose of data manipulation. TSQL is a query language, but it is an extension of SQL that serves Microsoft SQL Server databases and software.

How long does it take to learn T-SQL? ›

Because SQL is a relatively simple language, learners can expect to become familiar with the basics within two to three weeks. That said, if you're planning on using SQL skills at work, you'll probably need a higher level of fluency. How quickly you achieve mastery will depend on your method of learning.

Why is it called T-SQL? ›

T-SQL, which stands for Transact-SQL and is sometimes referred to as TSQL, is an extension of the SQL language used primarily within Microsoft SQL Server. This means that it provides all the functionality of SQL but with some added extras.

Is T-SQL worth learning? ›

If you're looking for your first job in data, it turns out knowing SQL is even more critical. For data analyst roles, SQL is again the most in-demand skill, listed in a whopping 61% of job posts. For data analyst roles on Indeed, SQL appears as follows: 1.7 times more than Python.

Is T-SQL a relational database? ›

What is T-SQL? Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is Microsoft's and Sybase's proprietary extension to the SQL (Structured Query Language) used to interact with relational databases. T-SQL provides all the functionality of SQL but with some added extras.

What are the 3 types of SQL commands? ›

There are 3 main types of commands. DDL (Data Definition Language) commands, DML (Data Manipulation Language) commands, and DCL (Data Control Language) commands.

How can I learn T-SQL? ›

Microsoft offers a free online course to introduce you to the T-SQL language. The 6-week, self-paced T-SQL tutorial covers all the fundamentals and includes exercises to familiarize you with writing SQL statements to query and modify data in a SQL Server database.

Can a non technical person learn SQL? ›

Anyone can learn SQL. It's not as hard as you think! In today's world, even those in non-technical jobs need some technical skills. And you don't have to be a hard-core nerd to get these skills.

Can I learn SQL in 7 days? ›

It should take an average learner about two to three weeks to master the basic concepts of SQL and start working with SQL databases. But in order to start using them effectively in real-world scenarios, you'll need to become quite fluent; and that takes time.

Can I learn basics of SQL in a day? ›

First, you'll learn how to extract data from one table. Later, you'll discover how to work with more than one table and group query results. All of this you can immediately apply in your everyday work (if you work with data, that is). The SQL Basics course should take you a maximum of 10 hours to complete.

What is a transaction in simple words? ›

What Is a Transaction? A transaction is a completed agreement between a buyer and a seller to exchange goods, services, or financial assets in return for money. The term is also commonly used in corporate accounting. In business bookkeeping, this plain definition can get tricky.

What are 2 examples of a transaction? ›

Examples of transactions are as follows:
  • Paying a supplier for services rendered or goods delivered.
  • Paying a seller with cash and a note in order to obtain ownership of a property formerly owned by the seller.
  • Paying an employee for hours worked.
Nov 13, 2022

How do you explain a transaction? ›

According to the Transaction definition, it is a finalized agreement between a seller and a buyer for transferring goods, services, or financial assets in exchange for money is known as a transaction.

Is T-SQL scripting language? ›

Transact-SQL (T-SQL) provides a robust programming language with features that let you temporarily store values in variables, apply conditional execution of commands, pass parameters to stored procedures, and control the flow of your programs.

What is stored procedure in T-SQL? ›

A stored procedure is a prepared SQL code that you can save, so the code can be reused over and over again. So if you have an SQL query that you write over and over again, save it as a stored procedure, and then just call it to execute it.

Is T-SQL same as mssql? ›

SQL is the basic ANSI standard for accessing data in a relational database. When you see "MSSQL" it is referring to Microsoft SQL Server, which is the entire database architecture and not a language. T-SQL is the proprietary form of SQL used by Microsoft SQL Server.

Can I learn SQL in 15 days? ›

1 hour per day, for just 15 days and you will be fluent in SQL! That's the only course you need to completely master SQL. You will be guided step-by-step from beginner to absolute expert in SQL.

Which is the best platform to learn SQL for beginners? ›

The Best 6 SQL Courses as of 2023
RankCourse TitlePlatform
1PostgreSQL for EverybodyCoursera
2SQL FundamentalsDataquest
3The Ultimate MySQL Bootcamp: Go from SQL Beginner to ExpertUdemy
4Complete SQL MasteryCodeWithMosh
2 more rows

Who invented T-SQL? ›

Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is Microsoft's and Sybase's proprietary extension to the SQL (Structured Query Language) used to interact with relational databases.

What are the 3 types of relationships in a relational database? ›

There are 3 different types of relations in the database:
  • one-to-one.
  • one-to-many, and.
  • many-to-many.
Jan 22, 2020

Who owns T-SQL? ›

SQL Server is owned and developed by Microsoft Corporation. The primary function of SQL Server is the storage and access of data as it is required by other applications, whether they are running on other computers that are connected to a network, or the computer on which the server is stored.

What are the 5 basic SQL queries? ›

Some of The Most Important SQL Commands
  • SELECT - extracts data from a database.
  • UPDATE - updates data in a database.
  • DELETE - deletes data from a database.
  • INSERT INTO - inserts new data into a database.
  • CREATE DATABASE - creates a new database.
  • ALTER DATABASE - modifies a database.
  • CREATE TABLE - creates a new table.

What are the 5 SQL statements? ›

Types of SQL Statements
  • Data Definition Language (DDL) Statements.
  • Data Manipulation Language (DML) Statements.
  • Transaction Control Statements.
  • Session Control Statements.
  • System Control Statement.
  • Embedded SQL Statements.

What are the four main types of keys in SQL? ›

SQL provides super key, primary key, candidate key, alternate key, foreign key, compound key, composite key, and surrogate key. SQL keys use constraints to uniquely identify rows from karger data.

What is the main language of Transact SQL? ›

T-SQL or Transact SQL is the query language specific to the Microsoft SQL Server product. It can help perform operations like retrieving the data from a single row, inserting new rows, and retrieving multiple rows. It is a procedural language that is used by the SQL Server.

Can I learn SQL in 2 weeks? ›

Everyone's different, but learning basic SQL statements can take anywhere from a couple of hours to a couple of weeks. It can take months to master them, but once you understand the concepts behind statements like INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE, you'll be very well placed to use those statements in the real world.

What is the best tool to learn SQL? ›

6 Best Free Resources for Learning SQL
  • SQLZoo. SQLZoo is an interactive, Wiki-based tutorial that offers lessons and projects for beginners in SQL. ...
  • Codecademy. Codecademy, a leading educational coding platform, offers a free course on SQL. ...
  • SQLBolt.

Can I get a job with SQL only? ›

Structured query language (SQL) is one of the most popular programming languages today, especially in data. You should probably be familiar with it if you want to pursue a data career, but you don't necessarily need to be an expert. You can get surprisingly far with just basic SQL skills.

What are beginner SQL skills? ›

10 SQL skills to develop for a career in programming
  • Microsoft SQL server skills. ...
  • Execution skills. ...
  • Database management. ...
  • PHP skills. ...
  • SQL Joins skills. ...
  • Indexing skills. ...
  • Related SQL system skills. ...
  • OLAP skills.
Mar 22, 2021

How do you explain what SQL is to someone without a technical background? ›

1. How do you explain what SQL is to someone without a technical background? SQL or Structured Query Language is a standardized programming language used to access or manipulate data in a database. It was designed to update, add, delete a row of data and retrieve subsets of information within the database.

Is SQL very difficult? ›

Generally speaking, SQL is an easy language to learn. If you understand programming and already know some other languages, you can learn SQL in a few weeks. If you're a beginner, completely new to programming, it can take longer.

Is SQL or Python harder? ›

SQL is certainly an easier language to learn than Python. It has a very basic syntax that has the sole purpose of communicating with relational databases. Since a great amount of data is stored in relational databases, retrieving data using SQL queries is often the first step in any data analysis project.

Is SQL easier than coding? ›

Because of its narrow application domain, SQL is relatively easier to learn than most general-purpose programming languages. We encourage you to follow DataCamp's SQL Fundamentals track, where we take you from being a beginner to a pro in SQL with 5 courses in just 21 hours.

How can I practice SQL everyday? ›

Learn SQL Online: DIY Practice
  1. SQL Fiddle. SQL Fiddle is a great place to start if you're looking to, well, fiddle around with SQL. ...
  2. SQLZOO. You'll find it easy to get going in SQL at SQLZOO. ...
  3. Oracle LiveSQL. ...
  4. W3resource. ...
  5. Stack Overflow. ...
  6. DB-Fiddle. ...
  7. GitHub. ...
  8. Coding Ground.
Mar 11, 2020

Why is SQL so easy to learn? ›

SQL is easy to learn

Because SQL query syntax relies on common English words, even if you have no programming experience you can easily understand how to use it. But it may take somewhat longer to become proficient than if you had come in with some programming experience.

What does TCL do in SQL? ›

The full form of TCL is Transaction Control Language. TCL commands are basically used for managing and controlling the transactions in a database to maintain consistency. And it also helps a user manage all the changes made by the DML commands for maintaining its transactions.

Is T-SQL used in SSMS? ›

Tools that use T-SQL

Some of the Microsoft tools that issue T-SQL commands are: SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) Azure Data Studio. SQL Server Data Tools (SSDT)

What are the types of transactions in SQL Server? ›

In this article, I am going to discuss the Different Types of Transactions (Auto Commit, Implicit, and Explicit Mode of Transactions) in SQL Server with Examples.

How to use tSQLt? ›

  1. Run tSQLt tests.
  2. Create objects to be tested.
  3. Create a class with tests.
  4. Create tests for the class.
  5. Enable created schemas.
  6. Run tSQLt tests by using a run configuration.
  7. Run tests from the editor.
  8. Rerun failed tests.
Dec 5, 2022

Which of the following are the features of T-SQL? ›

In this page, you can find high-level Transact-SQL language differences between consumption models of Synapse SQL.
  • Database objects. Consumption models in Synapse SQL enable you to use different database objects. ...
  • Query language. ...
  • Security. ...
  • Tools. ...
  • Data access. ...
  • Data formats.
Oct 12, 2022

Why do we use T-SQL? ›

T-SQL or Transact SQL is the query language specific to the Microsoft SQL Server product. It can help perform operations like retrieving the data from a single row, inserting new rows, and retrieving multiple rows. It is a procedural language that is used by the SQL Server.

What are the three Tcl commands? ›

The TCL commands are:
  • COMMIT.
  • ROLLBACK.
  • SAVEPOINT.
Oct 6, 2022

What are the 3 types of functions in SQL Server? ›

There are three types of user-defined functions in SQL Server:
  • Scalar Functions (Returns A Single Value)
  • Inline Table Valued Functions (Contains a single TSQL statement and returns a Table Set)
  • Multi-Statement Table Valued Functions (Contains multiple TSQL statements and returns Table Set)
Jul 7, 2017

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